This Evidence Check aims to identify the most effective clinical interventions for nicotine-dependent patients in clinical settings. The Evidence Check identified 74 eligible studies for inclusion in the review, and the National Health and Medical Research Council (NHMRC) Levels of Evidence were used to assess the robustness of the included studies. According to the evidence, a multi-component approach involving both medications and behavioural interventions remains the best practice for quitting smoking and is recommended to support quitting smoking for nicotine-dependent patients. The medicine Varenicline continues to be the most effective stand-alone treatment. The evidence suggests that for patients who can’t take varenicline, Nicotine Replacement Therapy plus behavioural support should be provided. During hospital stays, healthcare providers should provide a connection to Quitline alongside behavioural interventions and medicines. The same advice should be followed for e-cigarette cessation since there is a lack of evidence assessing quitting strategies specific to e-cigarette use.


Guillaumier A & McCarter K, Trigg J, Hines S, Jackson M, Harrison N, Ishaque S, Ric, J, Dowling A, Ela O, Bowden J, Dunlop A, Passey M, Baker A, Bonevski B. Effective clinical interventions for management of nicotine dependent patients in clinical settings: an Evidence Check rapid review brokered by the Sax Institute ( for the NSW Ministry of Health, 2023.
doi: 10.57022/zuzh3201

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