Investigators: Dr Margaret Kelaher (CI), Dr Amal Trivedi. There are profound disparities in mortality and morbidity impacting Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander populations with chronic illness, highlighting the need to identify effective policy interventions, both in Australia and in other countries that can ameliorate racial and ethnic health disparities. This project aims to produce empirical evidence on the impact of lowering medication out-of-pocket costs (co-payments) on the use of medications and acute hospital care among Indigenous Australians.